Issue #2 The Carb-Appropriate Review

Issue 2 | Volume 1 | July 2019 In this issue: Articles Do Low Carbohydrate Diets Negatively Affect Female Hormone Balance? Many people think that low-carb diets are negative for female hormone balance, menstrual cycles, and ovulation. But does this stand up to scientific scrutiny? Can You Be ‘Healthy at Every Size’? ‘Health At Every Size’ (HAES) has become a very popular ‘anti-diet’ movement, and while its goals are laudable and it results in benefits, can you actually be healthy at every or any size? Research reviews and commentary How reliable is the statistical evidence for limiting saturated fat intake? Most reviews and meta-analyses show no effect of saturated fat on mortality but the influential Hooper meta-analysis of 2015 suggested increased risk of death from saturated fat in the diet. But was this finding reliable? In a new study, Simon Thornley and colleagues cast doubt on the findings of the Hooper analysis. Association of changes in red meat consumption with total and cause-specific mortality among US women and men: two prospective cohort studies A recent study has been highly promoted in the media as another ‘nail in the coffin’ for red meat, suggesting an increased risk of death from eating red meat. But was this effect really shown? From the media Rebuttal to the Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine article: “Keto Diet Is Dangerous for Veterans with Diabetes” A recent article by vegan advocacy group PCRM has attacked using low-carb for veterans with diabetes. In this article, researcher Cliff Harvey…

Can You Be ‘Healthy at Every Size’?

Key Findings HAES results in significant and lasting benefits to self-esteem, body image, hunger cues, and cognitive restraint.These results are similar to social support programsHAES does not result in substantive benefits to physical health.A combined approach, focused on psycho-social and physical indicators of health is likely to the best approach. Traditional weight loss methods are based primarily on a medical model which treats obesity as a disease requiring diet, exercise, or pharmaceutical intervention. Conversely, the increasingly popular ‘Health At Every Size’ (HAES) movement believes that “individuals who are overweight and obese want to exercise and eat healthy foods, and they are capable of doing so when barriers are removed”.1 The Health At Every Size® Principles are: Weight Inclusivity: Accept and respect the inherent diversity of body shapes and sizes and reject the idealizing or pathologising of specific weights.Health Enhancement: Support health policies that improve and equalize access to information and services, and personal practices that improve human well-being, including attention to individual physical, economic, social, spiritual, emotional, and other needs.Respectful Care: Acknowledge our biases, and work to end weight discrimination, weight stigma, and weight bias. Provide information and services from an understanding that socio-economic status, race, gender, sexual orientation, age, and other identities impact weight stigma and support environments that address these inequities.Eating for Well-being: Promote flexible, individualized eating based on hunger, satiety, nutritional needs, and pleasure, rather than any externally regulated eating plan focused on weight control.Life-Enhancing Movement: Support physical activities that allow people of all sizes, abilities, and interests to…

Do Low-Carbohydrate Diets Negatively Affect Female Hormone Balance?

Key Findings Carbohydrate restriction does not result in alterations of ovulation, menses, or other indicators of women’s hormonal health. Low-carbohydrate diets have demonstrated positive benefits to women’s hormonal health. Extreme calorie restriction is likely to affect women’s hormonal balance and health. Those women who are leaner and exercise more are at greater risk of negative effects from excessive or prolonged energy restriction. A common claim currently doing the rounds is that a low-carb or keto-diet will negatively affect either ‘female hormone balance’, menstrual cycles, or ovulation. It is claimed that there is a minimum amount of carbohydrate (i.e. 200 g per day) required to preserve hormone status and ovulation, along with other indicators of hormonal health. Does This Claim Stack Up? There is no evidence that 200 g per day is required to preserve markers of female hormone balance. In fact, the most commonly cited study to support the idea that there is a minimum requirement for carbohydrate showed no such thing. Read more and listen to the audio below Luteinizing Hormone Pulsatility Is Disrupted at a Threshold of Energy Availability in Regularly Menstruating Women Anna Loucks, Jean Thuma The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 88, Issue 1, 1 January 2003, Pages 297–311, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-020369 Abstract To investigate the dependence of LH pulsatility on energy availability (dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure), we measured LH pulsatility after manipulating the energy availability of 29 regularly menstruating, habitually sedentary, young women of normal body composition for 5 days in the early…

Keto-flu, ketogenesis, and Carb-Tolerance: Part 2

A Summary of Our Research: How did people ‘feel’ on a keto diet? Very little research has been conducted on people’s subjective experiences of diet. The study of this is incredibly important because if we are to properly understand diet and prescribe, based on holistic effects, we need to know how people feel! Subjective perceptions of people on a keto-diet We analysed this in a qualitative study.  We identified our participants subjective mood and experiences related to the ketogenic diet from daily diary entries and focus group findings. Read more & listen to the audio below A summary of our keto research, part 2. Despite some initial challenges with the diet, especially gastrointestinal effects (mostly related to high levels of MCTs!), the overall perception of the diet was positive. There were appreciable benefits for wellbeing, mood, sleep, and sugar cravings reported, with negative experiences decreasing as participants adapted to the keto-diet.3 These findings suggested that the overall experience of a very-low-carb keto diet is positive, but varies markedly between individuals. The preceding studies suggested that increased ketonaemia might positively affect symptoms of carbohydrate withdrawal during keto-induction, and mood, but it is unclear whether diets differing in carbohydrate content and resulting in differing levels of ketonaemia would elicit similar effects. Ketosis and keto-flu in non-keto low-carb diets The final study of this collective body of work was a randomised clinical trial comparing a ketogenic diet, a low-carb diet and moderate-low-carb diet consisting of 5%, 15%, and 25% of total energy (TE)…

Detox diets and supplements: separating the fear from the facts

No matter where you look nowadays, someone is trying to sell you on a diet, pill or potion that promises to help you ‘detox’. In contrast, there are myriad scientists that will tell you that ‘detoxing’ is a bunch of BS and that there is no benefit to any diet or supplement that claims to help your body to detoxify. So, what is the real story? Is there any evidence backing ‘detox’ diets and supplements? Summary: Weight loss on detox diets is likely due to calorie restriction, not the elimination of toxins.In a healthy body, the liver does a great job of detoxification‘Poison is in the dose’ – there are few if any ‘bad’ foods and all chemicals only become dangerous at a particular dose and exposure.Spirulina and chlorella, milk thistle, dandelion, ginseng, onion, garlic, curcumin, resveratrol, selenium, zinc and vitamins A, C, and E reduce the oxidative damage associated with heavy metal toxicants.1-7Chlorella may be useful in inhibiting the absorption of dioxins via food and preventing accumulation of dioxins within the body.8Milk thistle reduces oxidative damage and may reduce entry of toxins into cells.9, 10 Will a detox help me to lose weight? Many people do lose weight on detox diets. It’s often claimed that this is because ‘toxins’ encourage the storage of fat, but in all likelihood, it is actually because while following a restrictive detox diet the person simply eats less.  As an example, a 2015 study demonstrated that the ‘Lemon Detox’ diet helped women lose weight,11…

Keto-flu, Ketogenesis, and Carb-tolerance: Part 1

A summary of our research: Ketogenic supplements Low-carb diets and ketogenic diets are becoming increasingly popular for both lifestyle reasons and for the improvement of health and performance. However, there is little evidence for the superiority of keto- vs less restrictive low-carb approaches in the research. Greater carbohydrate restriction does provide additional benefits for some outcome measures like glucose, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There are also specific benefits from keto-diets and the levels of blood ketones they produce, including reduced inflammation, inhibited tumour growth (n some cancers), reduction in neurodegeneration, and increased metabolic flexibility. But, despite the benefits and popularity of keto, there is surprisingly little consensus in the published research on what nutritional ketosis (NK) actually is! There is also a complete lack of research on the time taken to achieve the common benchmark of nutritional ketosis ( ≥ 0.5 mmol/L  beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB)) and on the symptoms of carbohydrate-withdrawal commonly described in mainstream media as ‘keto-flu’. Dietary supplements and methods to improve ketonaemia (blood ketone levels), time-to-NK, and symptoms of carbohydrate withdrawal and mood during keto-induction are similarly not well understood. Throughout my masters and doctoral research, my team and I provided, for the first time, a synthesis of research related to the time it takes for people to achieve ketosis and highlighted that there were no studies that had specifically evaluated adverse effects specifically during keto-induction. Listen to the audio commentary Key Findings: Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) resulted in fewer symptoms of Keto-flu when compared…

Why you shouldn’t be afraid of protein on a keto diet

A lot of people freak out about protein when following a ketogenic diet. There is an idea that eating a high, or even moderate protein diet, will result in large amounts of glucose creation from amino acids in protein (gluconeogenesis). However, this idea is unfounded and there are significant benefits from increasing your protein intake. What is ketosis? Ketogenic diets are those that elicit the state of ‘ketosis’. This state of ketosis refers to the production of ketone bodies, derived from fats (and some amino acids) for use as an alternative fuel in times of fasting or drastic carbohydrate restriction. When glycogen reserves become insufficient to supply glucose to the Central Nervous System (CNS), an alternative fuel source is needed. Ketones, especially beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) provide this fuel, which can be used by the brain and CNS, and by most tissue (including muscle tissue) throughout the body. What are ketogenic diets? The ketogenic diet itself is a form of LCHF diet that is very low in carbohydrate, low-to-high in protein and moderate-to-high in fat. It is often termed a ‘very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet’ (VLCKD). Keto diets are characterised by the expression of ketone bodies in the blood, breath, and urine. This expression of ketones is a ‘functional’ nutritional ketosis (NK) and this nutritional ketosis is usually defined by levels of ketones (specifically BOHB) in the blood of > 0.5 mmol/L. What’s ‘Gluconeogenesis’ Gluco = sugar, neo = new, genesis = creation. So, gluconeogenesis is the creation of glucose within the…

Paul Cadman

The Carb-Appropriate Podcast Ep.13 Paul ‘Cadsy’ Cadman is a nutrition and performance coach specialising in custom nutrition, supplementation, and training programming for endurance athletes.  I love chatting to Cadsy as he is a self-experimenter who’s always willing to do the hard yards, walking the talk, before applying it with his athletes. Paul has had great success fine-tuning ‘mixed fuelling’ (carbs + ketones) and with other supplements like MitoQ, mushrooms, Super Starch and more! Intro sample from Get Up Stand Up by Public Enemy feat. Brother Ali. Outro sample from Spastic Mumblings by Jesse Spillane – from http://freemusicarchive.org

What do I eat?

The 2019 edition One of the most common questions any nutritionist gets is “So, what do YOU eat?” This is not necessarily the best question for a client to ask, because what I do, will not always be what you should do. On the other hand, the example of someone putting healthy nutrition habits into practice can really help with the application of nutrition. So, periodically I post up what I’m currently doing to give some ideas of how to structure nutrition and supplementation to not just ‘get by’ but to thrive, which of course, is my key focus. Note: What I mean by ‘thrive’ is to perform optimally, think clearly, be productive, and to live my life of passion and purpose. It is far more than just being ‘healthy’ or to not experience the effects of the health conditions. Breakfast 4 x scoops vanilla Nuzest Clean Lean Protein1 x scoop Nuzest Good Green Stuff1 x Tbsp. Melrose MCT 1 x Tbsp. Melrose Fish Oil1 x Tbsp. flax or hempseed oil1 x dose of Life Cykel Turkey Tail extract1 x dose of Life Cykel Reishi extract View this post on Instagram Breakfast A post shared by Cliff Harvey (@cliffdoggydog) on Jun 2, 2019 at 1:15pm PDT Why? A lot of people will wonder why I have breakfast… It is the strategy du jour nowadays, especially for those in the lower-carb space to miss breakfast (intermittent fasting). I typically don’t. Fasting is incredibly effective for people who want to lose body…